The culture of wine


The grape harvest starts in the first decade of September and it mostly depends on the moment in which the grapes reach the desired ripening level, the grape harvest time is mostly due to the spring climatic conditions and to the grape typology. Usually in our firm the grape harvest begins with white grapes and firstly the white Pinot and the Chardonnay, two very delicate species of wine most of all in an organoleptic point of view; continuing with the Serprino, the Prosecco and the Fior d’Arancio ( Yellow Muscat) and finishes with red grapes as the Cabernet and the Merlot

The grape harvest is mostly manual which gives the possibility to select the clusters and eventually to leave the less mature clusters on the plant; in certain cases the grape harvest can be mechanical with grape-gathering machines that speed up the work. The manual harvest is made using cases filled and transported in the wine-cellar where  the grapes are destemmed, instead the mechanical harvest is made by the lateral shake of the plant where the product that falls is picked before it reaches the ground, cleaned from eventual impurity and placed in a hopper that is subsequently emptied in provided trailers. In manual harvest a method used is the so-called scalar grape gathering which consists in gathering grapes of the same vineyard in subsequent moments, in relation to the ripening degree of the single clusters.


With the term “wine tasting” we mean the technical process oriented to determine, in the most objective way, the organoleptic characteristics of a wine, to estimate the quality or rather to establish possible defects.

The wine tasting is performed, not only for personal pleasure, also to estimate the agreement to the features expected by the wine production specifications and rules. There are many methodologies of wine tasting developed by the various organizations that deal with wine but all of them expect substantially three separate stages of sensorial analysis: visual, olfactory and taste analysis.

Visual analysis
It allows to give a first evaluation of the product, such as:

  • The color: This parameter has a great importance because it gives the possibility to define some of the wine features.
  • Limpidity: This parameter values the presence of suspended particles. To be more precise, it is normal to find a minimal quantity of particles (the so-called “sediment”) in biodynamic wines that haven’t gone through particularly severe filtration, in wines whose fermentation continues after bottling and in important red wines that had a refinement in barrel for a consistent number of years.
  • Effervescence: (only for sparkling wines), particularly the quantity, fineness and persistence of perlage (the carbon dioxide bubbles).

Olfactory analysis
The main parameter that are evaluated are:

  • Perfume (or odor if unpleasant): the scents are described recalling the belonging family (aromatic, fruity, spicy, toasted, herbaceous, floral, animal, mineral, ethereal). Each perfume is also classified according to the origin, which is usually divided into three categories:
  • Intensity: describes how intensively aromas are perceived.
  • Complexity: describes the width of the bouquet, or rather the large number of perfumes identifiable.

Taste analysis
The taste analysis is done by the Tongue, the tongue is an organ that has sensors (the taste buds) that allow to recognize only four basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. Generally speaking , the sweet taste is perceived on the tip of the tongue, the acid taste on the sides, the salty taste on the edges, the bitter on the bottom; on the central part of the tongue you perceive tactile sensations. The parameters that are evaluated are:

  • Hardnesses given by:
    • Tannin content: this parameter is only evaluated in the wines obtained through the red vinification although it can be found in wines vinificated in white passed in barrels.
    • Acidity: due to the presence of acids whose most important are the tartaric, lactic and malic acid, the latter less strong than the previous and present in greater quantities if the malolactic fermentation took place. Acidity is a parameter whosepercived content decreases the more the wine has been aged.
    • Sapidity: This parameter is closely related to the pedoclimatic environment of the vine for example the soil or the climate of the area.
  • Softness given by:
    • sugar: it can be a residue derived from a fermentation process that has been artificially interrupted.
    • alcohol: formed through the alcoholic fermentation, it is present in greater quantities in the cases in which the wine has undergone an important refining process due to the fact that the alcohol allows a better preservation. The main ingredient of this category is ethanol, but it is possible to find also small amounts of methanol
    • polyhydric alcohol : responsible for the soft and general winding sensation inside the mouth. The main responsible of this perception is the glycerin
  • Body: Values the structure also known with the term “dry extract”, that means all components of the wine excluding water and alcohol. As you can guess, a wine with important structure has often been ageing a period in barrel or bottle.
  • Balance: measures the balance between softness and hardness. Obviously this parameter is extremely tied to the type of wine that has been tasted: a young white wine would have a certain predominance of hardness otherwise in a mature red wine the softness would be more evident, with the exception of the tannin that is still less aggressive in an evolved rather than in a young wine.
  • Intensity: just like the olfactory examination, this parameter expresses the intensity of tactile and taste sensations
  • Persistence: summarily indicates the number of seconds during which all the wine flavors remain in the mouth after swallowing
  • Quality: as for the olfactory examination, this judgment summarizes the quality level of the taste examination

The conclusive phase
After completing the three phases of sensory analysis we arrive to the conclusive stage, aimed at describing the general feelings derived from considering all of the parameters. In this phase it is defined the stage of development that measures the age of the wine in relation to its quality and therefore to its future evolution and harmony that reflects the general quality of the wine and the consistency of the sensations provided by the three exams 


I: the ideal temperature for storing wine should go from 12 to 16 degrees. It is also tolerable if the temperature remains constant from 18 to 20 degrees. A heat shock from hot to cold or vice versa should be absolutely avoided, which damages the wine and the cork.

II: it is better to have an underground room without light, which alters the wine, because of the strength of the rays and because of the heat it produces.

III: humidity is a friend of wine, being careful not to damage the label, the true identity card of the wine.

IV: the bottles should be kept horizontal, to keep the cork always humid because of the contact with wine and therefore less permeable to air.